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Approach to Practical Pediatrics 2nd Edition

Approach to Practical Pediatrics 2nd Edition pdf – (Long Cases, Short Cases, Neonatal Resuscitation, Instruments and X-Rays)

Approach to Practical Pediatrics 2nd Edition pdf


Approach to Practical Pediatrics 2nd Edition pdf

Approach to Practical Pediatrics 2nd Edition pdf free download

Approach to Practical Pediatrics 2nd Edition ebook

Table of Contents:

SECTION -I

BASICS OF PRACTICAL PEDIATRICS

CHAPTER -1 : INSTRUMENTS 3-29

Laryngoscope 3; Endotracheal Tube 4; Self-inflating Bag 5; Face Mask 6; Oxygen Mask 6; Nasal

Oxygen Catheter 7; Acrylic Oxygen Hood 8; Infant Feeding Tube 9; Suction Catheter 10; Umbilical

Catheter 10; Dileys Mucus Extractor 11; Tongue Depressor 11; Tuberculin Syringe 11; Inhalers 12;

Metered Dose Inhaler 12; Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) 14; Nebulizer Chamber 14; Spacer 15; Bone

Marrow Aspiration Needle 16; Bone Trephine Biopsy 16; Lumbar Puncture Needle 17; Vim-Silverman’s

Needle 17; Trucut Biopsy Needle 17; Three Way 18; Microdrip Set 19; Blood Set 19; Guedel

Airway 19; Intravenous Cannula 20; Sphygmomanometer (BP Apparatus) 20; Condom Catheter 21;

Cord Clamp 21; Respiratory Exerciser 21; Urine Collection Bag 22; Infantometer 22; Sahli’s Hemoglobinometer

22; Wintrobe’s Tube 24; Westergren Tube 24; Neubauer’s Chamber 25; RBC Pipette 25;

Growth Chart 26

CHAPTER – 2: DRUGS 30-48

ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution) 30; Sodium Bicarbonate 34; Ringer Lactate 34; 25% Glucose 35;

Mannitol (20% Solution) 36; Calcium Gluconate 36; Potassium Chloride (KCI) 36; Aminophylline 37;

Adrenaline 38; Dopamine 38; Dobutamine 39; Atropine 39; Furosemide 40; Digoxin 40; Vitamin D 41;

Vitamin A 42; Vitamin K 43; Diazepam 43; Phenobarbitone 43; Phenytoin 44; Phosphenytoin 45;

Midazolam 45; Penicillin 46; Methyl Prednisolone 47; Difference between Prednisolone and Methyl

Prednisolone 48

CHAPTER – 3: NEONATAL RESUSCITATION 49-59

Introduction 49; Basics of Asphyxia 49; Response to Birth 51; Initial Steps of Resuscitation 51;

Evaluation 51; Bag and Mask Ventilation 52; Chest Compressions 52; Endotracheal Intubation 53; Neonatal

Resuscitation Guidelines 2005 56; Medications 59; Epinephrine 59; Crystalloids 59; Soda Bicarbonate

59; Postresuscitation Care 59

CHAPTER – 4: IMMUNIZATION 60-89

Immunization History 60; BCG Vaccine 62; Oral Polio Vaccine 64; Injectable Polio Vaccine (IPV) 64;

DTwP Vaccine 66; DTaP Vaccine (Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) 67; DT Vaccine 67;

Toxoid) 68; Tdap Vaccine 68; Measles Vaccine 68; MMR Vaccine 70; Mumps Vaccine 71;

Rubella Vaccine 71; Hepatitis B Vaccine 71; Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin 72; Meningococcal

Vaccine 73; Pneumococcal Vaccine 74; Influenza Vaccine 76; Rabies Vaccine 76; Rabies Immunoglobulin

77; H. Influenzae-b Conjugate Vaccine 77; Typhoid Vaccine 78; Chickenpox Vaccine 80;

Hepatitis A Vaccine 81; Rotavirus Vaccine 8; Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccine 83; Combination

Vaccines 84; Cold Chain 84; Edible Vaccines 87; Immunization in Special Circumstances 87

CHAPTER – 5: ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY 90-94

Empirical Initial Antimicrobial Therapy 90; Postoperative Empirical Antibiotics 92; Fungal

Infections 92; Liver Failure 92; Vancomycin 93; Carbepenems 93; Monobactams 93; Newer

Macrolides 94; Quinolones 94; Gram Negative Resistant Infections Including Pseudomonas

Infections 94; Other Newer Antibiotics 94

CHAPTER – 6: DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF ABNORMAL SIGNS 95-100

Bulging Anterior Fontanel 95; Craniotabes 95; Bossing of Skull 95; Papilledema 95; Blue Sclerae 96;

Setting Sun Sign 96; Cataract 96; Cat’s Eye 96; Hypertelorism 96; Ocular Hypotelorism 96; Exophthalmos

97; Ptosis 97; Mongoloid Slant 97; Antimongoloid Slant 97; Low Set Ears 97;

Micrognathia 97; Macroglossia 97; Gum Hyperplasia 98; Delayed Dentition 98; Trismus 98; Oral

Thrush 98; Macrocephaly 98; Short Neck 98; Neck Rigidity 98; Costochondral Beading 99;

Opistotonus 99; Micropenis 99; Abnormalities of Testicular Size 99; Cafë-au-lait Spots 99; Hemihypertrophy

99; Pigeon-Shaped Chest 100; Scoliosis 100

CHAPTER – 7: DIETARY HISTORY 101-104

Dietary history 101; Healthy feeding habit for infants 102; Characteristics of ideal complementary

food 102; Prolactin reflex 104; Oxytocin reflex 104; Factors affecting mother’s reflexes 104

CHAPTER – 8: DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY 105-111

Developmental History 105; Methods Standardized for Assessment of Development in Children 106;

Target Milestones 107; Milestones 107; Fine Motor and Adaptive 108; Scribbling 108; Tower of

Cubes 108; Vision 108; Personal and Social 108; Language 109; Toilet Training 109; Eruption

Sequence of Teeth 109; Permanent Teeth 109; Development of Localization of Sounds 109; Growth

Standards 110; Which Charts to Use 110; Recommended Intervals and Parameters for Growth

Charting 111; Growth Charting 111; Concept of Percentiles 111

CHAPTER – 9: FAMILY AND SOCIOECONOMIC HISTORY 112-115

Socioeconomic History 112; Family History 112; Stillbirth Rate 113; Perinatal Mortality Rate 113;

Neonatal Mortality Rate 113; Post-neonatal Mortality Rate 113; Infant Mortality Rate 113; Types of

Families 113; Overcrowding 113; Degree of Relationship 113; WHO Criteria for Diagnosis of

Anemia 113; Millenium Development Goals 113

CHAPTER – 10: GENERAL PHYSICAL EXAMINATION 116-125

Components of Head to Toe Examination 116; Clubbing 117; Cyanosis 117; Lymphadenopathy 118;

Temperature 120; Pulse 121; Jugular Venous Pulse (JVP) 123; Jugular Venous Pressure 124;

Pallor 125; Edema 125

CHAPTER – 11: ANTHROPOMETRY 126-130

Anthropometry 126; Weight 126; Height 126; Head Circumference 127; Body Ratio—Upper

Segment/Lower Segment Ratio 127; Arm Span 127; Chest Circumference 127; Mid Arm

Circumference 128; Skin Fold Thickness 128; Body Mass Index 128; Mid Parental Height 128;

Classification of PEM 128; Age Independent Anthropometric Indices 129

CHAPTER – 12: HEALTH INDICATORS 131-135

Health Indicators 131; Mortality 131; Low Birth Weight (NFHS 3) 132; Immunization Coverage

(NFHS 3) 132; Children with Diseases Taken to Health Facility 132; Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea

With ORS (NFHS 3) 133; Anemia Status (NFHS 3) 133; Coverage of Anganwadi Centers

(NFHS 3) 133; Household Characteristics (NFHS 3) 133; Education (NFHS 3) 133; Caste/Tribe Status

(NFHS 3) 133; Marital Status (NFHS 3) 134; Current Contraceptive Use (NFHS 3) 134; Antenatal Care

(NFHS 3) 134; Maternity Care (NFHS 3) 134; Child Nutritional Status (NFHS 3) 134; Nutritional Status

of Adults 134; National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 134; Sample Registration Survey 134

SECTION -II

LONG CASES IN PEDIATRICS

CHAPTER – 13: PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM) 139-151

History 139; General Physical Examination 141; Systemic Examination 141; Diagnosis 142;

Investigations 142; Treatment 142; Discussion 145

CHAPTER – 14: RENAL SYSTEM 152-164

NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

History 152; General Physical Examination 153; Systemic Examination 153; Diagnosis 155;

Differential Diagnosis 155; Investigations 156; Treatment 156; Discussion 159

CHAPTER -15: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 165-192

CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

History 165; General Physical Examination 167; Systemic Examination 167; Diagnosis 169;

Differential Diagnosis 169; Treatment 170; Discussion 172

RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

History 178; General Physical Examination 180; Differential Diagnosis 181; Investigations 182;

Treatment 182; Discussion 185

CHAPTER -16: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 193-205

PLEURAL EFFUSION

History 193; General Physical Examination 194; Systemic Examination 195; Differential

Diagnosis 196; Investigations 197; Treatment 198; Discussion 199

PNEUMOTHORAX

Symptoms 203; General Physical Examination 203; Systemic Examination 203; Investigations 204;

Treatment 204; Discussion 205

CHAPTER -17: GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM 206-225

HEPATOSPLENOMEGALY

History 206; General Physical Examination 207; Systemic Examination 208; Diagnosis 210;

Differential Diagnosis 210; Investigations 218; Discussion 219

CHAPTER -18: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 226-290

TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS (TBM)

History 226; General Physical Examination 227; Systemic Examination 228; Diagnosis 231;

Differential Diagnosis 232; Investigations 232; Treatment 233; Discussion 234

HEMIPLEGIA

History 240; General Physical Examination 242; Systemic Examination 243; Diagnosis 245;

Differential Diagnosis 245; Investigations 245; Treatment 245; Discussion 246

PARAPLEGIA

History 249;General Physical Examination 250; Systemic Examination 250; Diagnosis 252

Differential Diagnosis 252; Investigations 253; Treatment 254; Discussion 254

HYDROCEPHALUS

History 258; General Physical Examination 259; Systemic Examination 259; Diagnosis 259;

Differential Diagnosis 259; Investigations 259; Treatment 259; Discussion 260

ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS

History 262; General Physical Examination 263; Systemic Examination 264; Differential

Diagnosis 266; Investigations 266; Treatment 267; Discussion 267

CEREBRAL PALSY

History 270; General Physical Examination 272; Systemic Examination 272; Diagnosis 274;

Differential Diagnosis 274; Investigations 274; Treatment 275; Discussion 275

NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

History 279; General Physical Examination 280; Systemic Examination 280; Investigation 280;

Treatment 281; Differential Diagnosis 281; Discussion 283

FLOPPY INFANT

History 285; Chief Complaints 285; General Physical Examination 286; Systemic Examination 286;

Diagnosis 287; Differential Diagnosis 287; Investigations 287; Discussion 289

SECTION- III

SHORT CASES IN PEDIATRICS

CHAPTER -19: SHORT STATURE 293-300

History 293; General Physical Examination 294; Systemic Examination 295; Differential

Dignosis 295; Investigations 296; Treatment 297; Discussion 297

CHAPTER -20: DOWN’S SYNDROME 301-306

History 301; General Physical Examination 302; Systemic Examination 302; Diagnosis 302;

Investigations 302; Treatment 302; Discussion 302

CHAPTER -21: RICKETS 307-314

History 307; General Physical Examination 308; Diagnosis 309; Investigations 309; Treatment 309;

Discussion 310

CHAPTER -22: NORMAL NEONATE 315-324

History 315; General Physical Examination 316; Systemic Examination 317; Diagnosis 319;

Discussion 320

CHAPTER -23: HIGH–RISK NEONATE 325-329

HIgh-risk Babies 325

CHAPTER -24: KALA-AZAR 330-336

History 330; General Physical Examination 331; Systemic Examination 331; Diagnosis 332;

Differential Diagnosis 332; Investigations 333; Treatment 334; Discussion 335

CHAPTER -25: THALASSEMIA 337-351

History 337; General Physical Examination 338; Systemic Examination 338; Diagnosis 341;

Differential Diagnosis 341; Investigations 341; Treatment 342; Discussion 343

CHAPTER -26: LYMPHOMA 352-358

History 352; Systemic Examination 354; Diagnosis 354; Differential Diagnosis 355; Investigations 355;

Treatment 356; Discussion 357

CHAPTER -27: LEUKEMIA 359-365

History 359; General Physical Examination 360; Systemic Examination 360; Diagnosis 361;

Differential Diagnosis 361; Investigations 361; Treatment 363; Discussion 363

CHAPTER -28: HYPOTHYROIDISM 366-372

History 366; General Physical Examination 367; Systemic Examination 367; Diagnosis 367;

Differential Diagnosis 367; Investigations 367; Treatment 368; Discussion 369

CHAPTER -29: DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY (DMD) 373-381

History 373; General Physical Examination 374; Systemic Examination 375; Diagnosis 337;

Differential Diagnosis 377; Investigations 378; Management 378; Discussion 379

CHAPTER -30: ATAXIA 382-386

History 382; General Physical Examination 383; Systemic Examination 383; Differential Diagnosis 384;

Investigations 385; Treatment 385; Discussion 385

CHAPTER -31: MENINGOMYELOCELE 387-392

History 387; General Physical Examination 388; Systemic Examination 389; Investigations 390;

Treatment 390; Discussion 391

SECTION- IV

MISCELLANEOUS STUDIES

CHAPTER -32: INVASIVE PROCEDURES 395-401

Lumbar Puncture (LP) 395; Intraosseous Cannulations 396; Heel Puncture 396; Subdural Tap 396;

Bone Marrow Aspiration 397; Bone Trephine Biopsy 397; Liver Biopsy 398; Kidney Biopsy 399;

Insertion of Nasogastric Tube 399; Abdominal Paracentesis 400; Pericardiocentesis 400; Suprapubic

Tap 401

CHAPTER -33: LEGAL ACTS 402-407

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 402; The Prenatal Diagnostic

Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 403; Adoption Act 404; The Infant Milk

Substitutes, Feeding Bottles And Infant Foods Act, 1992 (IMS Act)405; Medical/Legal Pitfalls 407

CHAPTER-34: TIMING OF SURGERY FOR COMMON PEDIATRIC CONDITIONS 408-409

Timing of Surgery 408

CHAPTER – 35: X-RAYS 410-421

Respiratory System 410; Cardiovascular System 414; X-ray Skull 415; X-ray Bones 416;

Gastrointestinal System 419; Retrograde Pyelography 420; CT Scan 420; MRI 420; Role of

Radiation 421; Choice of Investigation 421

CHAPTER – 36: ABG ANALYSIS 422-424

Normal Values 422; Steps to ABG Analysis 422

CHAPTER – 37: SOCIAL PROGRAMS 425-429

Nutritional Supplementation Programs in India 425; Vitamin A Prophylaxis Program 425; Prophylaxis

Against Nutritional Anemia 425; Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program 426; Special Nutrition

Program 426; Balwadi Nutrition Program 426; Applied Nutrition Program 426; Mid-day Meal

Program 426; Universal Immunization Program (UIP) 427; Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM)

Program 427; Maternal and Child Health 427; Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) 428; Integrated

Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme 428; Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) 429;

Adult Literacy Campaign 429; India Population Project (IPP) 429; International Programs 429

Appendix: Neonatal Resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines …………………… 431

Index 433

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