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Essential Guide To Blood Groups pdf 3rd Edition

Essential Guide To Blood Groups pdf 3rd Edition – WILEY Blackwell

Essential Guide To Blood Groups pdf

Essential Guide To Blood Groups 3rd edition free download

Essential Guide To Blood Groups ebook

Table of Contents:

1 An introduction to blood groups, 1

What is a blood group?, 1

Blood group antibodies, 3

Clinical importance of blood groups, 3

Biological importance of blood groups, 3

Blood group systems, 4

Blood group terminology and classification, 4

2 Techniques used in blood grouping, 8

Factors affecting antigen–antibody reactions, 8

Temperature, 8

Time and ionic strength, 9

pH, 9

Antigen density, 9

Stages of haemagglutination reactions, 10

Direct agglutination, 11

Indirect agglutination, 12

Enzyme techniques, 12

Antiglobulin tests, 14

Elution techniques, 18

Automation of test procedures, 19

Flow cytometry, 19

Molecular blood group genotyping, 21

3 The ABO blood groups, 22

Introduction, 22

ABO antigens, antibodies, and inheritance, 22

A1 and A2 , 23

Antigen, phenotype, and gene frequencies, 24

ABO antibodies, 25

Importance of the ABO system to transfusion and transplantation

medicine, 26

Biochemical nature of the ABO antigens, 27

Biosynthesis of the ABO antigens and ABO molecular genetics, 28

H, the precursor of A and B, 30

ABH secretion, 31

H-deficient red cells, 32

Further complexities, 32

Acquired changes, 33

Associations with disease and functional aspects, 34

4 The Rh blood group system, 35

Introduction – Rh, not rhesus, 35

Haplotypes, genotypes, and phenotypes, 36

Biochemistry and molecular genetics, 37

D antigen (RH1), 40

Molecular basis of the D polymorphism, 40

D variants, 41

Clinical significance of anti-D, 42

D testing, 44

C, c, E, and e antigens (RH2, RH4, RH3, RH5), 44

Clinical significance of CcEe antibodies, 45

Molecular basis of the C/c and E/e polymorphisms, 45

Other Rh antigens, 45

Compound antigens: ce, Ce, CE, cE (RH6, RH7, RH22, RH27),

and G (RH12), 46

Cw, Cx, and MAR (RH8, RH9, RH51), 46

VS and V (RH20, RH10), 46

Rh-deficient phenotypes – Rhnull and Rhmod, 47

Putative function of the Rh proteins and RhAG, 47

5 Other blood groups, 49

The Kell system, 49

The Kell glycoprotein and the KEL gene, 49

Kell system antigens, 50

Kell system antibodies, 51

Ko phenotype, 51

McLeod syndrome, McLeod phenotype, and Kx (XK1) antigen, 52

The Duffy system, 52

Fya (FY1) and Fyb (FY2), 52

Anti-Fya and -Fyb, 53

Fy3 and Fy5, 53

The Duffy-glycoprotein, a receptor for chemokines, 53

Duffy and malaria, 54

The Kidd system, 54

Jka (JK1) and Jkb (JK2); anti-Jka and -Jkb, 54

Jk(a−b−) and Jk3, 55

The Kidd-glycoprotein is a urea transporter, 55

The MNS system, 56

M (MNS1) and N (MNS2); anti-M and -N, 56

S (MNS3) and s (MNS4); anti-S and -s, 56

S− s− U− phenotype and anti-U, 57

Other MNS antigens and antibodies, 57

The Diego system, 57

Band 3, the red cell anion exchanger, 57

Dia (DI1) and Dib (DI2); anti-Dia and -Dib, 58

Wra (DI3) and Wrb (DI4); anti-Wra and -Wrb, 58

Other Diego-system antigens, 59

The Lewis System, 59

Some other blood group systems, 61

P1PK, 61

Lutheran, 61

Yt, 61

Xg, 61

Scianna, 61

Dombrock, 62

Colton, 62

Landsteiner–Wiener (LW), 62

Chido/Rodgers, 62

Gerbich, 62

Cromer, 63

Knops, 63

Indian, 63

I, 63

JR and Lan, 64

Vel, 64

Antigens that do not belong to a blood group system, 64

6 Clinical significance of blood group antibodies, 65

Antibody production and structure, 66

Factors affecting the clinical significance of antibodies, 69

Antibody specificity, 69

Haemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR), 71

Intravascular red cell destruction, 72

Extravascular red cell destruction, 72

Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), 73

Crossmatching for infants under 4 months old, 75

Autoantibodies, 77

Tests to assess the potential significance

of an antibody, 77

Decision-making for transfusion, 78

7 Blood grouping from DNA, 81

Fetal blood grouping, 81

Blood group typing of patients and donors, 82

Next generation sequencing, 84

The future of blood group serology, 84

8 Quality assurance in immunohaematology, 85

Achieving total quality, 85

Frequency and specificity of control material, 86

Quality requirements for safe transfusion practice, 88

Checklist of critical control points, 89

Laboratory errors, root cause analysis (RCA),

and corrective and preventive action (CAPA), 89

9 Trouble-shooting and problem-solving in the reference laboratory, 92

ABO grouping, 92

Rh grouping, 94

Problems in antibody screening, identification,

and crossmatching, 95

10 Frequently asked questions, 102

What is the difference between sensitivity and specificity and

how can these be determined?, 102

Why is anti-A,B no longer obligatory in ABO typing?, 102

Why are two anti-D reagents often recommended

for RhD typing?, 103

What is the importance of detecting D variant (weak D and partial D)

phenotypes?, 103

How do I control the results for antiglobulin testing?, 103

Why should RhD positive women be tested more than once during

pregnancy?, 104

How often should transfusion recipients be tested for the presence of

antibodies?, 104

How can passive anti-D be differentiated from anti-D due to

alloimmunisation?, 104

Why do we need to perform antibody screening?

Isn’t a crossmatch by IAT at 37°C enough to detect

incompatible blood?, 105

What is the incidence of alloimmunisation post-transfusion?, 105

How do I determine and identify antibodies

present in a sample?, 105

What is a compound antibody?, 105

How can the incidence of compatible donors for a recipient

with multiple antibodies be calculated?, 106

Why can’t the droppers in bottles of reagents be used instead

of a volumetric pipette?, 106

What cells should be used when performing

an antibody titration?, 107

How are the results of titrations reported?, 107

What is a Major Obstetric Haemorrhage?, 107

What is ‘Massive Transfusion’?, 107

When group-specific blood is in short supply, how do

I select the ‘next best’ for transfusion?, 108

How are high-titre haemagglutinins classified?, 108

What is an ‘immediate spin’ crossmatch?, 108

What is an ‘electronic crossmatch’?, 108

Which patients are not eligible for electronic issue of blood?, 108

What is ‘bed-side’ testing?, 109

What are signs and symptoms of a suspected

transfusion reaction?, 109

What action should be taken in the event of a suspected

transfusion reaction?, 109

In haemovigilance, how should ‘near-miss’ events

be characterised?, 109

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