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Oxford Handbook of Epidemiology for Clinicians pdf

Oxford Handbook of Epidemiology for Clinicians pdf – (Oxford Medical Publications)

Oxford Handbook of Epidemiology for Clinicians pdf

Oxford Handbook of Epidemiology for Clinicians pdf

Oxford Handbook of Epidemiology for Clinicians pdf free download

Oxford Handbook of Epidemiology for Clinicians ebook

Table of Contents:

Section 1 Epidemiology in the clinic 1

Introduction 2

1 The diagnostic process 3

Introduction: epidemiology in the clinic 4

Measures of disease frequency 6

Distribution of disease 9

Is there anything wrong? 10

Risk factors 12

Identifying risk factors 14

Validity of diagnostic tests 16

Clinical uses of predictive value 18

Pre-test probability 20

Likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities 22

So what has my patient got? The Bayesian clinician 26

2 Management decisions 27

Decisions, decisions . . . the principles of clinical management 28

What is prognosis? Looking into the crystal ball 30

Prognosis: mortality 32

Prognosis: morbidity 34

Evidence-based management 36

Clinical guidelines 38

How effective is the treatment? 42

Interpreting reports of clinical trials 44

How appropriate is the treatment? 46

Patient-centred decision-making 48

3 Risk communication and promoting health 51

Health promotion in clinical practice 52

Could it have been prevented? 54

Communicating risk 56

Health promotion in the clinic 58

Smoking and alcohol advice 60

Exercise, weight, and dietary advice 62

Sexual health 64

Outbreak investigation 66

Breaking the chain of infection 68

Section 2 Evidence-based practice 71

Introduction 72

4 Finding and summarizing evidence 73

Finding and evaluating existing evidence 74

Electronic resources 76

Critical appraisal 78

Appraisal checklists 82

CONSORT statement 84

Systematic review 88

Meta-analysis 90

Analysis and interpretation of a meta-analysis 92

5 Preventive medicine and screening 97

Prevention strategies 98

Levels of prevention 100

Preventing communicable disease 102

Preventing non-communicable disease: example

of cardiovascular disease 104

Basic infectious disease epidemiology 106

Vaccination 108

Screening overview 112

Screening programmes 114

Evaluating screening programmes 116

Major UK screening programmes 118

6 Evaluating clinical practice 119

Introduction 120

Clinical governance and ethics 122

Carrying out an audit: getting started 124

Choosing the standards 126

Writing your protocol 129

Choosing the sample 130

Data collection 132

Data collection: examples 134

Analysing data 136

Interpreting fi ndings 138

Changing practice 140

Completing the process 142

Section 3 Epidemiological methods 143

Introduction 144

7 Types of study 145

Types of evidence and study designs 146

Basic concepts in epidemiological research 148

Interpreting associations 150

Confounding 154

Association or causation? 156

The nature of causality 160

Time trend and geographical (ecological) studies 162

Ecological studies: examples 164

Surveys and cross-sectional studies 166

Cross-sectional studies: examples 170

Case–control studies 172

Case–control studies: examples 176

Cohort studies 178

Cohort studies: examples 184

Intervention studies and clinical trials 186

Clinical trials: examples 190

Clinical trial phases 192

Choosing the right type of study 194

8 Sources of data 197

Introduction: good quality data 198

Routine data 202

Clinical uses of routine data 206

Death certifi cation 210

Referral to the coroner 214

Infectious disease notifi cation 215

Cancer registration 216

9 Statistical concepts 217

Introduction 218

Data and variables 220

Summarizing sample data 222

Measures of central location 224

Measures of dispersion 226

Sampling variability 228

Probability distributions 230

Confi dence intervals 232

Hypothesis tests 234

Statistical or clinical signifi cance 238

Sample size and power calculations 240

When to consult a statistician 242

10 Statistical techniques in clinical medicine 245

Independent t-test 246

Paired t-tests 248

Confi dence intervals for a proportion 250

Normal test for difference in proportions 252

Chi-squared test for association 254

Parametric and non-parametric tests 256

Mann–Whitney U test 257

Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test 258

Linear regression 260

Correlation coeffi cients 262

T-tests for regression coeffi cients 264

Multiple regression 266

Analysis of variance 268

Logistic regression 272

Measuring survival 274

Kaplan–Meier product limit estimator 276

Log-rank test 278

Cox proportional hazards model 279

Receiver operating characteristic curves 280

Section 4 Epidemiology of common diseases 283

Introduction 284

11 Global burden of disease 285

Terminology 286

Global burden of non-communicable disease 288

Burden of non-communicable disease in the UK 292

Global burden of communicable disease 294

Burden of communicable disease in the UK 296

12 Epidemiology of diseases 297

Arthritis 298

Asthma 300

Bladder cancer 302

Brain and CNS cancer 304

Breast cancer 306

Cardiovascular disease 308

Cerebrovascular disease 310

Cervix cancer 312

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 314

Cirrhosis of the liver 316

Colorectal cancer 318

Coronary heart disease 320

Dementia 322

Depression 324

Diabetes 326

Emerging infectious disease 328

Gastroenteritis 330

Healthcare associated infections 332

High blood pressure and hypertension 334

HIV/AIDS 336

Infl uenza 338

Kidney cancer 340

Leukaemia 342

Liver cancer 344

Lung cancer 346

Malaria 348

Malignant melanoma 350

Measles 352

Meningococcal disease 354

Neglected tropical diseases 356

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 358

Oesophageal cancer 360

Pancreatic cancer 362

Peptic ulcer disease 364

Prostate cancer 366

Road traffi c accidents 368

Self-infl icted injuries 370

Sexually transmitted infections 372

Stomach cancer 374

Tuberculosis 376

Viral hepatitis 380

Index 382

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