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Understanding Diabetes and Endocrinology pdf

Understanding Diabetes and Endocrinology pdf

Understanding Diabetes and Endocrinology pdf

Understanding Diabetes and Endocrinology pdf

Understanding Diabetes and Endocrinology pdf free download

Understanding Diabetes and Endocrinology ebook

Table of Contents:

CHAPTER 1: THE BASICS 7

DIABETES 8

The impact of diabetes 8

Insulin action 9

The epidemiology of Type 1 diabetes 10

The pathophysiology of Type 1 diabetes 11

The epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes 11

The pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes and

insulin resistance 11

Other forms of diabetes 12

MODY 12

Liver and pancreatic disease 12

Endocrine disease 12

Inherited forms of insulin resistance 13

Secondary causes of diabetes 13

ENDOCRINOLOGY 13

The thyroid gland – structure and function 13

The parathyroid glands – structure and function 14

The adrenal glands – structure and function 15

The pituitary gland – structure and function 17

Lipid metabolism 18

The reproductive organs – structure and function 19

The female 19

The male 19

CHAPTER 2: THE PROBLEMS:

DIAGNOSIS, INVESTIGATION,

AND COMPLICATIONS 21

DIABETES 22

Diagnosis 22

Presentation 22

Acute/emergency diabetes care 22

Hypoglycaemia 23

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 26

Hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma

(HONK) 27

Lactic acidosis 27

Acute circulatory disease and diabetes 27

Diabetes and surgery – perioperative

considerations 27

Long-term complications 28

Diabetic retinopathy 28

Other eye complications 32

Nephropathy and renal disease 32

Diabetic neuropathy and foot disease 34

Erectile dysfunction 39

Gastrointestinal conditions associated with

diabetes 40

Skin disease 40

Psychological disorders and diabetes 42

Macrovascular disease 43

Diabetes in childhood 45

Diabetes in adolescence 46

Type 2 diabetes in childhood 47

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young

(MODY) 47

Pregnancy and diabetes 47

Gestational diabetes 48

Planning pregnancy for those with diabetes 48

ENDOCRINOLOGY 49

Disorders affecting the thyroid gland 49

Thyrotoxicosis 49

Hypothyroidism 53

Thyroid lumps (goitre, nodules, and

malignancy) 53

Parathyroid disease 55

Hypercalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism 55

Hypocalcaemia and hypoparathyroidism 58

Other bone disorders 58

Disorders affecting the adrenal glands 60

Adrenal hormone excess 60

Adrenal hormone deficiency 64

Adrenal masses – incidentalomas 69

Pituitary disease 70

Pituitary hormone excess 70

Sellar masses 74

Pituitary hormone deficiency 76

Other metabolic disease 81

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours 81

Electrolyte disturbances 85

Renal tubular abnormalities 86

Inherited endocrine syndromes 87

Dyslipidaemia 87

Reproductive hormones 89

Reproductive hormone excess 89

Female reproductive hormone deficiencies 90

Male hypogonadism 92

CHAPTER 3: THE SOLUTIONS:

PREVENTION, MANAGEMENT,

AND TREATMENT 95

DIABETES 96

The prevention of Type 1 diabetes 96

The prevention of Type 2 diabetes 96

Identifying people with Type 2 diabetes 97

Managing the acute complications of diabetes 97

Hypoglycaemia 97

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 98

Hypersosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma

(HONK) 99

Lactic acidosis 99

Acute circulatory disease 99

Perioperative management 100

General diabetes management and lifestyle 102

The assessment and management of a new

patient with diabetes 102

Blood glucose control and monitoring 110

HbA1c testing 111

Managing diet in Type 2 diabetes 111

Exercise 113

Smoking 114

Educating about glucose control and

reducing risk 114

Driving and diabetes 115

Travel 115

Insurance 115

Religion and diabetes 115

Pharmacological treatment in Type 1 diabetes 116

Types of insulin 116

Insulin regimes 117

Pharmacological treatment in Type 2 diabetes 118

Oral hypoglycaemic agents 118

Newer glucose-lowering therapies 123

Insulin therapy 125

Managing the chronic complications of diabetes 126

Eye disease 126

Kidney disease 127

Neuropathy and foot disease 128

Erectile dysfunction (ED) 130

Managing diabetes in pregnancy 132

Managing diabetes during and after delivery 132

ENDOCRINOLOGY 133

Managing thyroid disease 133

Thyrotoxicosis 133

Hypothyroidism 135

Thyroid lumps 136

Managing parathyroid disease 137

Hypercalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism 137

Hypocalcaemia and hypoparathyroidism 138

Other bone disorders 138

Managing adrenal disease 139

Adrenal hormone excess 139

Adrenal hormone deficiency 140

Adrenal masses – incidentalomas 141

Managing pituitary disease 142

Pituitary hormone excess 142

Pituitary hormone deficiency 146

Managing metabolic disease 149

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours 149

Electrolyte abnormalities 150

Renal tubular abnormalities 150

Inherited endocrine syndromes 150

Dyslipidaemia 151

Managing reproductive disease 152

Reproductive hormone excess 152

Reproductive hormone deficiencies 153

CHAPTER 4: ANSWERS TO CASES 157

INDEX 159

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